SPIRITUAL

HUMAN PERFECTION IN SUFISM PERSPECTIVE

In Sufism, the human is seen as a mirror of God in the sense that man is the most appropriate container and perfect for appeared His names. Under this paradigm, then it becomes human nature and it should be capable of transmitting the essence of God, where there is a manifestation in the human way of thinking and being loving, compassionate, wise, tolerant attitude and the nature and goodness of others. In short, human nature is actually more reflective and contains goodness. Here, then, the discourses of human perfection in Sufism gaining a strategic place. The term al-Insān al-Kāmil is one of indicator that the concept of the perfect man, it has been a fascinating discourse since hundreds of years ago.

However, in the course of its history as well as in his encounter with the world of reality, the human heart is seen as the core of God’s mirror, often buffeted by dust that makes shabby, was also light the darkness that makes it no longer able to reflect ‘the name and essence of God’. It can not be denied that the human embodiment is now more representative of a force of evil and corruption on earth spreaders. In this context, once again the world of Sufism are required to find a new formulation for the formation of reliable spirituality, which is nothing but the goal is to clean the back of the human heart so that it can reflect back of God’character. Thus, themes like maqamat and ahwāl, is most formulations of Sufism in the context of human endeavor above.

In the discussion on human, world of Sufism can not be ruled out the views of al-Ghazali. It is certain that al-Ghazali pretty much provide an explanation of man, both from the standpoint of psychology and ethic. Al-Ghazali is a thinker of three times in a row because he has undergone and received his three varied world of thought, both the world of theology, philosophy and mysticism. Nevertheless, the views of al-Ghazali became interesting because there is relevance between the psyche and human ethics with the level of human closeness to the Lord.

First of all, al-Ghazali’s view that there is no soul in the beginning (pre-existence) before then he was trapped in the body and has a divine nature is eternal. Several terms as the equivalent of the soul, among others; ‘soul’, ‘Rūh (spirit)’ and ‘the heart’. Nevertheless, al-Ghazali often mentions the term rational ‘soul’ whose existence is apparently vital for humans. Rational soul (the rational soul, al-nafs al-nathīqah), in the Koran is called the quiet soul (the tranquillized, al-nafs al-muthma’innah), and a spirit that is a matter of God (al-rūh min amr rabb). Those of al-Ghazali, human excellence lies in the advantages of the other creatures in knowing God’, who is revered in the world, where a special tool that is used for it is through taqarrub hearts to God, good works are sincere, submit to according to the instructions of God through His revelation. Whenever called soul, things that would be the essence of the soul is the human heart.

Relevance of the heart as the essence of the human soul presumably lies in the explanation of al-Ghazali on the content of a hadith that reads ‘man ‘arafa nafsahû,’ arafa rabbahû “. In response to this hadith, al-Ghazali does not necessarily conclude that the original human soul itself is God’, he knew God’, because it has the impression of nature. The human spirit in the “affairs of God’ (amr rabb). “Amr” means that not only commands (command) because it involves the spirit of divinity. For al-Ghazali and the secret of man’s inner self (sirr al-qalb) is part of the divinity, as the rays of the light of God, a flash of Eternal Fire, inside and exposed him to the Supreme Reality, the shadow of the whole being, and he also met by the light of God and shockingly real.

AlGhazali see that something special in the man is his heart. In the context of Sufism, the idiosyncrasies that are caused by one of the media to draw closer to the God’ God Almighty is the human heart itself. Although in addition to the liver is still a lot of other media to draw closer to God’, but what is clear is the heart of the greatest potential for humans to close to God. Humans do have the potential and divinity or often referred to as nature “Lahut”, however, the potential for it to be constantly honed and actuated so he always lived. You can be sure that anyone who is able to master the soul or heart, then he will have a greater ability to be able to know God.

Al-Ghazali explained that the human soul as the Lord’s affairs (min al-umūr al-Ilāhiyyah), nobler and more glorious than the human body itself. While in his other works, al-Ghazali explains that the human body is the type of the lower world, while the human spirit is a type of a higher world. Rational soul is like the governor to manage, govern, control and issue commands or prohibitions and carry out the will of what is he want; he was the deputy of God in nature and kalamullah bodies in relation to the form of the birth. The rational soul is like climbing a bridge to God that stretches from the rugged nature, tainted by demons, evil to the nature of angels. When he climbed out of the sky, and then continue to rise again until finally mortal into his majesty.

Al-Ghazali narrates a hadith in which the Prophet said: “Every servant has two eyes in his heart, the eyes that see the things that are unseen, and when God wants goodness to His servant, God will open the eyes of his heart, so he is able to see something that is hidden from view outside “. Arbāb al-Qulūb, (spiritually minded), seen with the inner eye, the eye more clearly than usual. Outside eye can one see, for example, see something far looks close, great looks small, but the inner vision will not be wrong. Both eyes were born or inner eye, each has made the sun and the light is perfect eyesight. The material world has a light source. Reason also has a light source, and the light source of the spiritual world is kalamullah.

How important the role of the rational soul in the view of al-Ghazali likened to the rational soul as a bridge to God. Rational soul can change the life of someone who previously wallowing in sin and ignorance that far, to the bosom God’ under the light of His light. However, it can not be separated from the events of the opening of the heart and soul by God’ to see His truths, which leads men to the protrusion of inner dimensions. Al-Ghazali seems to explain the greatness of the aspects of the human psyche and the inner, inner vision which he thinks are better able to provide guidance and direction to people to see and judge things.

However, on the other hand, al-Ghazali assess any particular sensitivity to the human soul, where the soul sometimes experienced serious disturbances that he had certain obstacles to get to know his Lord. Al-Ghazali considered that the human passions, like worldly desires would be a barrier for people to see the world in a supernatural God’. As long as the barrier is still not excluded from his eyes, then he will not be able to see things that are hidden. However, when the barrier was removed, especially for His chosen servant, then no doubt the human soul can see God’s world and contemplate His wonders. The human soul is a mirror that can reflect the truth and perfection, the soul is what distinguishes it from the lower animals. But it is very unfortunate that the mirror is often shrouded by dust that blocks light reflection. Once the barrier was eliminated, either by hand or by the wind that blows, then blowing a gift of God’ to the human heart, and eternal truth is revealed.

Badarussyamsi

Pendiri Website Kajian Pemikiran Islam. Dosen IAIN STS Jambi dan Analis Masalah Sosial Keagamaan

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